Women used to be present in computer work in higher percentages than they are today. Ever wonder what happened? Turns out that the story of gender and the progress of computing are a lot more tightly linked than we once thought…
by Marie Hicks (MIT Press, January 2017)
In 1944, Britain led the world in electronic computing. By 1974, the British computer industry was all but extinct. What happened in the intervening thirty years holds lessons for all postindustrial superpowers. As Britain struggled to use technology to retain its global power, the nation’s inability to manage its technical labor force hobbled its transition into the information age.
In Programmed Inequality, Marie Hicks explores the story of labor feminization and gendered technocracy that undercut British efforts to computerize. That failure sprang from the government’s systematic neglect of its largest trained technical workforce–simply because they were women. Women were a hidden engine of growth in high technology from World War II to the 1960s. As computing experienced a gender flip, becoming male-identified in the 1960s and 1970s, labor problems grew into structural ones and gender discrimination caused the nation’s largest computer user—the civil service and sprawling public sector—to make decisions that were disastrous for the British computer industry and the nation as a whole.
Drawing on recently opened government files, personal interviews, and the archives of major British computer companies, Programmed Inequality takes aim at the fiction of technological meritocracy. With over 30 images–including period photographs and cartoons–the reader gets a feel not only for what happened, but the cultural texture of the time. Hicks explains why, even today, possessing technical skill is not enough to ensure women will rise to the top in science and technology fields. Programmed Inequality shows how the disappearance of women from the field had grave macroeconomic consequences for Britain, and why the United States risks repeating those errors in the twenty-first century.
I’ll be speaking and signing books at a few book stores and other locations this spring. If you’re in the Chicago, Silicon Valley, or Research Triangle Park areas, please come by and say hello! (More dates will be added as spring progresses.) Interested in having me give a reading, a talk about my book, or a workshop on avoiding structural bias to your organization or company? Get in touch by emailing me.
Upcoming (Fall 2017-Spring 2018)
- December 6, 2017 (7:00pm) at the Computer History Museum: Conversation about my book with David Brock, curator of CHM. It will be livestreamed! More info here.
February 23, 2018 (4:00pm): Talk at the University of Chicago.
- February 27, 2018 (6:00pm): Book talk to celebrate Paperback Release at the MIT Press bookstore in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Reading and signing. More info available here–you can also pre-order books for pickup or delivery.
- March 5, 2018 (4:00pm): Talk at Yale University.
- April 26, 2018 (7:30pm): Paperback Release Party at Women and Children First in Chicago! Reading and signing. More info available here–you can also pre-order books for pickup or delivery.
- Summer 2018: Stay tuned for event dates in the UK and elsewhere.
Reviews of Programmed Inequality:
“This is a fascinating account of how the UK civil service gradually but deliberately pushed women out of computing technology jobs over a three-decade period. It’s one of the best researched and most compelling examples of the negative impact of gender and class discrimination on a country’s economy.”
—Maria M. Klawe, President, Harvey Mudd College
“Marie Hicks’s well-researched look into Britain’s computer industry, and its critical dependence on the work of female computer programmers, is a welcome addition to our body of knowledge of women’s historical employment in science and technology. Hicks confidently shows that the professional mobility of women in computing supports the success of the industry as a whole, an important lesson for scholars and policymakers seeking ways to improve inclusion in STEM fields.”
—Margot Lee Shetterly, author of Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
“This is a fascinating and disturbing account of women’s roles in the British computing industry’s rise and fall. In its analyses of job classifications and campaigns for equal pay, this study examines relationships between gender and computing in far greater detail than previous accounts. Deeply researched and persuasively argued, Hicks’s study of computing in Britain complements existing accounts of women’s exclusion from the US computing industry—and offers important lessons for the tech industries of both nations today.”
—Jennifer S. Light, Department Head and Professor of Science, Technology, and Society, MIT
“Programmed Inequality is a model of socially informed history that reveals deep linkages between technological modernization and profound cultural commitments to gender binaries and inequities. It defies any intention we may still hold to interpret the development of computing as distinct from matters of power, identity, and democratic participation.”
—Amy E. Slaton, Professor of History, Drexel University; author of Race, Rigor, and Selectivity in U.S. Engineering: The History of an Occupational Color Line
“Computing is widely recognized as a male-dominated field, but how did it come to be this way? In Programmed Inequality, Marie Hicks illuminates how structural discrimination shaped the composition of the British computer workforce and created lasting gender inequalities. Clearly written and elegantly argued, Hicks’s book is a must-read for those hoping to understand how ideas about gender, class, and sexuality became embedded in computing and how government practices and new technologies worked together to undermine social and economic equality.”
—Eden Medina, Associate Professor of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington; author of Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende’s Chile
Past Events (Spring-Summer 2017)
- January 27, 2017 (7:30pm): Book launch party and reading at Chicago’s iconic feminist bookstore, Women and Children First
- February 9, 2017 (6pm): Reading and signing at Chicago’s Seminary Co-op bookstore
- March 18, 2017 (2:30-4:15): Panel at Computer History Museum SIGCIS Conference, Mountain View, CA
- April 5, 2017 (7pm): Reading and signing in Durham, NC at the Regulator Bookshop on Ninth Street.
- April 19, 2017: Lecture at Data & Society, in NYC (talk was recorded and is available online here).
- May 4, 2017: Public Lecture at Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA
- May 23, 2017 (4:00-5:30pm): Talk at the University of Manchester, England, home to the UK National Archive on the History of Computing
- May 31, 2017 (5pm-7pm): Talk at University College London, England, home to the UK National Archive on the History of Computing
- June 2, 2017 (5pm): Talk at the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University, UK. Talk was recorded and can be viewed online here.
- September 22, 2017 (3pm): Talk at the Informatics School at the University of Indiana, Bloomington. Post-talk interview with Science Node can be viewed online here.
- October 5, 2017 (5pm): Talk at the national Grace Hopper Conference, Orlando, Florida. Talk was recorded and can be viewed online here.
(registration is sold out for this event, but talks will be recorded and put on the Museum’s YouTube Channel.
Pre-order books for pickup or delivery through the Regulator using Indiebound.
About the Author: Marie Hicks is an assistant professor of history of technology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her work focuses on how gender and sexuality bring hidden technological dynamics to light, and how women’s experiences change the core narrative of the history of computing. Hicks teaches courses on modern European history, the history of technology, gender and sexuality studies, STS, and disasters. Hicks received her MA and Ph.D. from Duke University and her BA from Harvard University. Before entering academia, she worked as a UNIX systems administrator.
For more about her work see her website and blog at mariehicks.net.